Traceroute the way di Jiang Wu


Writing and formatting with Markdown

Readme file on GitHub uses GitHub Flavored Markdown (GFM) and blogging platform like Jekyll, Ghost, Tumblr (support editing posts in Markdown) and many other platforms also encouraging to write posts using Markdown. Markdown is a minimal syntax for marking up your documents with formatting, using punctuation and special characters. For those new to Markdown, this guide will help you become familiar with the full list of shortcuts. Here’s the version of Markdown in a combination of standard Markdown, GitHub Flavored Markdown, and other useful features like footnotes.

File extention with .markdown, .mkdown, .mkdn, .mkd, .md are the supported Markdown document.

Here’s a quick example of Markdown in action:

The *quick* brown fox, jumped **over** the lazy [dog](


The quick brown fox, jumped over the lazy dog.

Writing on GitHub Pages and Jekyll using Markdown

Starting May 1st, 2016, GitHub Pages will only support kramdown, Jekyll’s default Markdown engine.

Learn more

Configure default Kramdown Markdown for Jekyll

Add the following Jekyll build settings in your _config.yml file:

markdown: kramdown
  input: GFM # Enable GitHub Flavored Markdown (fenced code blocks)
  hard_wrap: false
highlighter: rouge

All HTML is valid Markdown. If you’re stuck not able to format your content how you would like (for example using tables) you can always use plain HTML instead of Markdown.

Markdown style guide

The most common formatting options have keyboard shortcuts to make them easier to add:

Result Markdown
Bold **text** or __text__
Emphasize *text* or _text_
Link [title](http://)
Inline Code `code`
Image ![alt](http://)
List * item
Blockquote > quote
H1 # Heading
H2 ## Heading
H3 ### Heading


Headers are set using a hash before the title. The number of hashes before the title text will determine the depth of the header. Header depths are from 1-6

H1 : # Header 1
H2 : ## Header 2
H3 : ### Header 3
H4 : #### Header 4
H5 : ##### Header 5
H6 : ###### Header 6

Text styling

Links                : [Title](URL)
Bold                 : **Bold** or __Bold__
Italicize            : *Italics* or _Italics_
Paragraphs           : Line space between paragraphs
Quotes               : > Quote
Inline Code          : `alert('Hello World');`
Horizontal Rule (HR) : ---


To insert an image into your post, you need to first type ![]() into the Markdown editor panel and image link inbetween (). To title your image, all you need to do is place the title text inbetween the square brackets, e.g; ![This is a title]().


Footnotes can be added to the body of your text using placeholders like this: [^1]. Alternatively you can use ‘n’ rather than numbers [^n] so you don’t have to worry about which number you are on. At the very end of your post, you can define your matching footnotes as shown below, URLs will be turned into links:

[^1]: This is my first footnote
[^n]: Visit
[^n]: A final footnote

Writing code

Inline code can be added using single back-ticks E.g. `alert('Hello World')`.

For code blocks, if extensions enabled Kramdown supports both standard Markdown code blocks and the syntax from GitHub Flavored Markdown (GFM).

Standard Markdown works by indenting code lines with 4 spaces:


GFM uses triple back-ticks ``` before and after the code block:



This is a paragraph that contains a [link to](

List Markdown example

This paragraph contains a list of items.

* Item 1
* Item 2
  - Sub item
* Item three

Quote Markdown example

This paragraph has a quote

> That is pulled out like this

from the text my post.

Further references